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Replacing the lime water bath also sped the process up. Today, the lime solution is occasionally sharpened by the use of sodium sulfide. The liquor bath would have been in wooden or stone vats and the hides stirred with a long wooden pole to avoid human contact with the alkaline solution.

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According to Reed there were a variety of these treatments. This was partly due to its expense and partly due to its unusual working properties. Later, more thorough techniques of scouring the surface irretrievably lost the earlier text. However, if the skins were soaked in the liquor too long, online dating young women older men they would be weakened and not able to stand the stretching required for parchment.

But how long will printing last, which is dependent on paper? They do not date the age of the writing but the preparation of the parchment itself. Palimpsest During the seventh through the ninth centuries, many earlier parchment manuscripts were scrubbed and scoured to be ready for rewriting, and often the earlier writing can still be read.

The stretching aligned the fibres to be more nearly parallel to the surface. To support the needs of the revival of use by artists, a revival in the art of preparing individual skins is also underway. Is not parchment made of sheepskins? The vat was stirred two or three times a day to ensure the solution's deep and uniform penetration.

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Rubbing pumice powder into the flesh side of parchment while it was still wet on the frame was used to make it smooth and to modify the surface to enable inks to penetrate more deeply. The skins could be attached by wrapping small, smooth rocks in the skins with rope or leather strips. Many techniques for parchment repair exist, to restore creased, torn, or incomplete parchments.

Such metal fittings continued to be found on books as decorative features even after the use of paper made them unnecessary. The term originally referred only to the skin of sheep and, occasionally, goats. These recycled parchments are called palimpsests. To make the parchment smooth and white, thin pastes starchgrain or staunchgrain of lime, flour, egg whites and milk were rubbed into the skins. Parchment consists mostly of collagen.